Valletta: The Vibrant Baroque Capital of Malta

An Introduction to Valletta

Valletta, the capital city of Malta, is a bustling cultural hub with a rich history that dates back to the 16th century. Founded by the Knights of St. John, Valletta boasts stunning Baroque architecture, a wealth of historical sites, and a vibrant cultural scene that attracts visitors from around the world.

As a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the city offers a fascinating blend of old-world charm and modern-day amenities, making it a must-visit destination for anyone traveling to Malta.

The History of Valletta

The history of Valletta is closely tied to the Knights Hospitaller, a military and religious order that played a significant role in the Crusades.

After successfully defending Malta against the Ottoman Empire in the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights decided to construct a fortified city on the Sciberras Peninsula to serve as their new capital. Named after Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette, the city was designed by the renowned military engineer Francesco Laparelli and built with the help of Maltese architect Gerolamo Cassar.

Valletta’s strategic location in the Mediterranean made it a coveted prize for various powers, leading to multiple sieges and periods of occupation. Despite its tumultuous past, the city has managed to retain much of its original charm and character, with its narrow streets, grand palaces, and imposing fortifications bearing witness to centuries of history.

Exploring Valletta’s Architectural Gems

Valletta is a treasure trove of Baroque architecture, with its ornate palaces, churches, and public buildings showcasing the artistic prowess of its builders. Some of the most notable sites to visit include:

St. John’s Co-Cathedral: This magnificent church, built between 1573 and 1578, is considered one of the finest examples of high Baroque architecture in Europe. The interior, adorned with gilded stuccowork and intricate frescoes, is home to Caravaggio’s masterpiece, “The Beheading of St. John the Baptist.”

Grandmaster’s Palace: Once the residence of the Grand Master of the Knights of St. John, the palace now serves as the official residence of the President of Malta. Visitors can tour the opulent State Rooms and explore the Palace Armoury, which houses one of the world’s largest collections of arms and armor.

Fort St. Elmo: This star-shaped fortress, built in 1552, played a crucial role in the Great Siege of Malta. Today, it houses the National War Museum and offers panoramic views of the Grand Harbour and the surrounding city.

A Cultural Capital: Museums and Events

Valletta’s rich cultural scene is evident in its numerous museums, galleries, and events. Some of the most popular cultural attractions include:

The National Museum of Archaeology: Located in the historic Auberge de Provence, the museum showcases Malta’s ancient history through a collection of artifacts that date back to the Neolithic period.

The Manoel Theatre: One of the oldest working theaters in Europe, the Manoel Theatre hosts a diverse program of performances, including opera, ballet, and drama. The theater’s ornate interior is a masterpiece in its own right.

Unwinding in Valletta’s Gardens and Waterfront

Amidst the bustling streets of Valletta, visitors can find serene spots to unwind and take in the city’s beauty. Some of the most popular green spaces and waterfront areas include:
Upper Barrakka Gardens: Perched atop the city’s fortifications, these public gardens offer sweeping views of the Grand Harbour and the Three Cities. The gardens are home to statues, fountains, and the historic Saluting Battery, where a ceremonial cannon is fired daily.

Lower Barrakka Gardens: Located on the eastern side of Valletta, these gardens offer a more peaceful atmosphere and stunning views of the harbor and Fort St. Angelo. The neoclassical Temple of Proserpina adds a touch of elegance to the setting.

Valletta Waterfront: Once the hub of the city’s maritime trade, the Valletta Waterfront has been transformed into a lively promenade lined with shops, restaurants, and bars. The beautifully restored Baroque warehouses and the Church of the Flight into Egypt add historic charm to this vibrant area.

Delighting in Maltese Cuisine

A visit to Valletta would be incomplete without sampling the diverse flavors of Maltese cuisine. The city offers a wide range of dining options, from traditional Maltese dishes to international fare. For an authentic taste of the island, be sure to try:
Pastizzi: These delicious savory pastries, filled with ricotta or pea purée, are a popular Maltese snack that can be found in local bakeries and cafes.

Aljotta: A traditional Maltese fish soup flavored with garlic, tomatoes, and herbs, Aljotta is a flavorful and satisfying dish that showcases the island’s abundant seafood.

Ħobż biż-żejt: This simple yet tasty Maltese snack consists of crusty bread rubbed with ripe tomatoes and drizzled with olive oil, then topped with a variety of ingredients such as olives, capers, and tuna.

Getting Around Valletta

Valletta’s compact size makes it easy to explore on foot, allowing visitors to fully appreciate the city’s historic charm and architectural details. Public transportation options are also available, including buses that connect Valletta to other parts of the island. For a unique experience, consider taking a traditional Maltese dghajsa, a small gondola-like boat, to cross the Grand Harbour and visit the Three Cities.


With its rich history, stunning architecture, and vibrant cultural scene, Valletta is a destination that offers a truly unique and unforgettable experience. From exploring the city’s Baroque masterpieces and ancient fortifications to unwinding in its tranquil gardens and savoring local cuisine, a visit to the Maltese capital promises to be a journey through time, culture, and beauty.